Anthropology and the rise of the professional-managerial class

http://www.haujournal.org/index.php/hau/article/view/hau4.3.007

David Graeber

 

Abstract

Many of the internal changes within anthropology as a discipline—particularly the “postmodern turn” of the 1980s—can only be understood in the context of broader changes in the class composition of the societies in which university departments exist, and, in particular, the role of the university in the reproduction of a professional-managerial class that has come to displace any working-class elements in what pass for mainstream “left” political parties. Reflexivity, and what I call “vulgar Foucauldianism,” while dressed up as activism, seem instead to represent above all the consciousness of this class. In its place, the essay proposes a politics combining support for social movements and a prefigurative politics in the academic sphere.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14318/hau4.3.007 

ETXAURI SE CIERRA. La regulación de la escalada en Navarra

http://escaladasostenible.org/?q=content/etxauri-se-cierra-la-regulaci%C3%B3n-de-la-escalada-en-navarra

Como ya sabéis, Escalada Sostenible está trabajando en la grabación del documental Prohibido Escalar. Es un reportaje que quiere mostrar la compleja relación de la escalada y los escaladores con una realidad social, medioambiental, cultural, política y económica. Hemos rodado por toda España y el último capítulo que hemos montado fue el de Etxauri (Navarra). Ante, la inmediatez del posible cierre de esta centenaria escuela de escalada y la opacidad de la administración en el proceso de regulación, hemos ofrecido a los colegas de DENA extraer esta pieza documental final independiente que hemos titulado Etxauri se cierra. La regulación de la escalada en Navarra. Esperamos que refleje la difícil situación que viven los escaladores navarros.

(gehiago…)

Ingurumen-hobekuntzak ordaintzeko prestasun handiagoa dute emakumezkoek eta seme-alabak dituztenek

http://www.ehu.eus/eu/komunikazio-bulegoa/edukia/-/asset_publisher/OvM0/content/20150203_david_hoyos?redirect=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ehu.eus%2Feu%2Fkomunikazio-bulegoa%2Falbisteak%3Fp_p_id%3D101_INSTANCE_9NNa%26p_p_lifecycle%3D0%26p_p_state%3Dnormal%26p_p_mode%3Dview%26p_p_col_id%3Dcolumn-2%26p_p_col_count%3D1%26_101_INSTANCE_9NNa_advancedSearch%3Dfalse%26_101_INSTANCE_9NNa_keywords%3D%26_101_INSTANCE_9NNa_delta%3D5%26_101_INSTANCE_9NNa_cur%3D10%26_101_INSTANCE_9NNa_andOperator%3Dtrue

UPV/EHUko ikertzaileek eskala psikologiko bat txertatu dute baliabide naturalen balorazio ekonomikoko ikerketetan

Ingurune naturalean eragina duten erabaki publikoak hartzeko, garrantzitsua da herritarren lehentasunak kontuan izatea. Horretarako, aukera diskretuko esperimentuak dira munduan gehien zabaltzen ari den metodologietako bat. Analisi ekonomikoa erabiltzen da pertsonek ingurumen-egoeraren inguruan dituzten lehentasunen balorazio monetario bat lortzeko. Nolanahi ere, UPV/EHUko David Hoyos eta Petr Mariel doktoreek beste osagai bat sartu dute azterketa horretan: inkesta egiten zaien pertsonen ingurumen-jarrerari buruz psikologian erabiltzen den eskala bat. Haren bidez, pertsonen ezaugarri soziodemografikoak eta haien ingurumen-lehentasunak lotu ahal izan dituzte.

Baliabide naturalen balorazio ekonomikoaren helburua da dirutan adieraztea ingurumenak ematen dituen ondasunen eta zerbitzuen balioa. Horretarako, ekonomistek aukera diskretuko esperimentuak erabiltzen dituzte: inkesta erantzuten dutenek zenbait aukera dituzte, eta ongizaterik handiena eragiten diena hautatu behar dute haietatik. Inkestan proposatutako aukera bakoitzari kostu bat esleitzen zaio, eta, hala, dirutan adieraz daitezke inkesta erantzuten dutenen lehentasunak. Funtsean, ingurumen-aldaketa jakin bati lotutako gizarte-ongizatea neurtu nahi da, eurotan. Hori guztia oso erabilgarria da aukeraketa sozialen esparruan; izan ere, hala, herritarrek zer eta zenbat eskatzen duten jakin ahal izateko informazio kualitatibo eta kuantitatibo baliagarria eskuratzen dute eragile politikoek. Gainera, lehentasun horiek dirutan adierazten direnez, “kostu-onura” analisi ekonomiko estandar batean sar daiteke informazio hori. Hau da, neurri-unitate berean -alegia, dirutan- aldera daiteke zer kostu eta zer onura duen gizartearentzat ingurumen-politika batek.

UPV/EHUko Ekonomia Aplikatua III Saileko David Hoyos eta Petr Mariel doktoreek zenbait tokitan erabili dute eredu hori. Haren bidez aztertutako tokietako bat da Zarautz eta Getaria artean dagoen Garate-Santa Barbara eremu babestua. Eremu hartan egindako ikerketan, baso autoktonoa berreskuratzearen edo mahastiak hedatzearen artean hautatzeko eskatu zitzaien inkesta erantzun zutenei, zoruaren erabilera horiek pertsonengan eragiten duten ongizatea neurtzeko. Alegia, kasu hartan, balio ekologikoak sustatzearen edo zoruaren erabilera komertzialagoak sustatzearen artean hautatu behar izan zuten. Inkestan erantzundakoaren arabera, ondorioztatu zen “eremuaren balio ekologikoen sustapenak 57 eta 265 milioi euroko onura soziala eragiten zuela urtean”, Hoyosek adierazi duenez. Gainera, ikertzaileek ikusi zuten onura sozial hobea lortzen zela balio ekologikoak sustatzean, ustiapen komertzialak sustatzean baino.

Emakumezkoak, seme-alabak dituztenak eta mendizaleak

Ikerketa horren emaitzetan sakonduz, ikertzaileek harago joan nahi izan dute. Pertsonen lehentasunen balorazio ekonomikoa egin ondoren, aztertu dute haien ingurumen-jarrerek zer eragin duten lehentasunak adierazteko garaian. Alegia, saiatu dira azaltzen zergatik aldatzen den ingurumen hobekuntzak egiteko ordaintzeko prestasuna lagun batzuetatik besteetara. Horretarako, inkesta betetzen duten pertsonen ingurumen-jarrerari buruzko informazioa (adibidez, birziklatzeko duten joera, naturazaletasuna…) sartu dute lehengo ereduan, zehaztasunez ulertzeko zergatik hautatzen dituzten aukera batzuk edo besteak. Psikologian baliatzen den eskala batean bildutako informazioa erabili dute, inkesta erantzuten dutenen ingurumen-jarrerei buruzkoa, banakoak sailkatzeko.

Horren ondorioz, nabarmentzekoa da ingurumen-hobekuntzak ordaintzeko prestasun handiagoa dutela ingurumena kontserbatzeko ekintzak egitea beharrezkotzat jotzen duten lagunek. Nolanahi ere, lagun horien ezaugarri soziodemografikoak aztertu ondoren, ikusi dute ordaintzeko prestasuna handiagoa dela emakumezkoetan gizonezkoetan baino; handiagoa dela seme-alabak dituzten pertsonetan, seme-alabarik ez dutenetan baino; eta handiagoa dela zenbat eta naturazaleagoa izan.

Aplikazio berri horri esker, naturagune bat herritarren lehentasunak kontuan hartuta kudeatzeaz gainera, politika publiko eraginkorragoak diseinatzeko aukera ere badago; izan ere, Hoyosek adierazi duenez, “herritarrek dituzten lehentasunei buruzko informazio xehatuagoa dute erakunde publikoek; alegia, hobeto ulertzen dute nola banatzen diren populazioan lehentasun horiek”. Gainera, herritarren ezaugarriak zehaztu ondoren, ingurumen-politika espezifikoagoak diseinatzeko aukera ematen du. “Adibidez -azaldu du ikertzaileak-, horretatik ondoriozta daiteke seme-alabarik ez duen eta mendizalea ez den gizonezkoaren profila sentsibilizazio berezia behar duen profil soziala dela”.

Informazio osagarria

David Hoyos (Bilbo, 1974) Ekonomian doktorea da (UPV/EHU). Garapenaren Ekonomiako masterra egin zuen Manchesterko Unibertsitatean, eta Ekonomia eta Enpresa Zientzietako lizentziaduna da (UPV/EHU). IHOBE Ingurumen Jarduketarako Sozietate Publikoak finantzatutako Ingurumen Ekonomiako Unitatean ikertzaile aritu zen 2002 eta 2010 bitartean. Irakasle elkartua da UPV/EHUko Ekonomia Aplikatua III Sailean (Ekonometria eta Estatistika), 2010etik. Ikertzaile bisitaria izan zen 2009an, Queen’s University Belfasten.

Baliabide naturalen balorazio ekonomikoa du ardatz ikertzaileak. Gaur egungo ikerketak balorazio ekonomikoko metodoekin lotutako aurrerapen metodologiko eta ekonometrikoak biltzen ditu, bai eta garraioaren eta ingurumenaren arteko erlazioa ere. Ikerketa hau UPV/EHUk finantzatu du, EHUA12/13 proiektuaren bidez.

Erreferentzia bibliografikoak

  • D. Hoyos, P. Mariel, S. Hess. ‘Incorporating environmental attitudes in discrete choice models: an exploration of the utility of the awareness of consequences scale’. Science of the Total Environment(2014);  in press.,  – 0048-9697
  • A. Longo, D. Hoyos, A. Markandya. ‘Sequence effects in the valuation of multiple environmental programs using the contingent valuation method’. Land Economics (2014);  in press,  – 0023-7639

Park Enthography Program

http://www.nps.gov/ethnography/parks/

Ethnography in the Parks

Descendants of plantation owners, sharecroppers, and slaves at Louisiana’s Cane River Creole National Historical Park…anglers casting into the surf at Cape Cod National Seashore…neighborhood gardeners plying the soil at Washington DC’s Fort Dupont Park. NPS ethnographers—under federal and NPS legal and policy mandates—focus on these and other groups linked to the parks by religion, legend, deep historical attachment, subsistence use, or other aspects of their culture.

A park can be integral to the identity of a people, whose relationship to the land may be centuries old. Yet, in some cases, the park’s reason for being may diverge from a culture’s way of life. Naturalist John Muir, one of the founders of Alaska’s Glacier Bay National Park, saw the place as untrammeled wilderness; to the native Tlingit or Haida, however, the bay is home, a source of food and security, where their people began. Using research approaches and other methods, ethnographers identify these constituents, giving them a voice in how parks are planned and run.

Ethnographers also assist parks in developing brochures, exhibits, and the like to tell the stakeholders’ stories to the visiting public. John Pitzecker, superintendent of New Bedford Whaling National Historical Park in Massachusetts, commissioned an ethnographic study of surviving whalers in the neighborhood. Another study describes the Timbisha Shoshone who have long lived in Death Valley National Monument.

By shining local spotlights, NPS ethnographers enrich our diverse heritage as a nation.

The Choreographies of Landscape; Dance [and] Theory in Yosemite National Park

http://imaginativeethnography.org/the-choreographies-of-landscape-dance-and-theory-in-yosemite-national-park/

Department of Dance’s Graduate Colloquia
York University

Sally Ann Ness
Professor of Anthropology
University of California-Riverside

The Choreographies of Landscape;
Dance [and] Theory in Yosemite National Park

February 25 (Wed), 10-12
Accolade East, McLean Performance Studio (2nd floor)

sallyannness

Sally Ann Allen Ness in Yosemite Valley, May 2010. Photography by Darrell Logan.

Sally Ann Ness is Professor of Anthropology at the University of California, Riverside. She has conducted ethnographic research in urban provincial centers in the Philippines and in Yosemite National Park in the United States. Her work has focused on various forms of symbolic action, both in the practice of everyday life and in extraordinary ritual and secular performances. She has written on the semiotics of festival life, dance, and sport, as well as on tourism development and its consequences for cultural practice and cultural identity.  She is author of: Body, Movement, and Culture; Kinesthetic and Visual Symbolism in a Philippine Community (1992); andWhere Asia Smiles; an Ethnography of Philippine Tourism (2002); and is co-editor, with Carrie Noland, ofMigrations of Gesture (2008). Her forthcoming book, Choreographies of Landscape; Signs of Performance in Yosemite National Park (Berghahn Press) was funded in part by a Guggenheim award in 2007. The book focuses on athletic-choreographic forms of visitor performance in Yosemite Valley, interpreting their role in the formation of self-world relations that give rise to novel constructions of self, place, community, and culture.

Abstract:

When, where, and how do dance and choreography begin? What is their true sphere of influence and relevance? Dance theorist, André Lepecki, has advocated extending the limits of Dance Studies beyond its conventionally defined boundaries so as to begin answering these questions. Pursuing such lines of inquiry, however, requires as well the articulation of new theories of choreographic performance, theories that can identify dance and choreography–or comparable phenomena–in places and by performers not traditionally recognized as involving them. The theory of landscape performance here presented, developed in relation to certain particularly energetic kinds of traditional visitor activity (rock climbing and alpine hiking) in Yosemite National Park, offers one such theoretical platform. Landscape performance theory gives primary consideration to the performative force of embodied movements as they inspire, transmit, reproduce, coordinate, and publicly transform various kinds of meaningful self-world relationships—in this case, relationships centrally concerned with the distinctive features of the Yosemite national-cultural landscape.

For more information, contact Patrick Alcedo at <alcedo@yorku.ca>

Selma, Obama and the Colonization of Black Resistance

http://www.counterpunch.org/2015/03/13/selma-obama-and-the-colonization-of-black-resistance/

by AJAMU BARAKA

“To cleanse history in the name of a false patriotism that celebrates a new illiteracy as a way of loving the United States is a discourse of anti-memory, a willful attempt at forgetting the past in the manufactured fog of historical amnesia.”

— Henry Giroux

I tried! In my capacity as a member of the Center for Constitutional Rights’ Board of Directors (CCR), I traveled to Selma on Friday to attend the induction of Arthur Kinoy and William Kunstler, two of the founding lawyers of CCR, into the Selma National Voting Rights Museum. And even though I knew that I would have to endure Obama’s presence in Selma on Saturday, my plan was to stay in Selma until Sunday to catch up with friends and participate in the peoples’ crossing of the Edmund Pettus Bridge on the anniversary of Bloody Sunday.

But I never saw the sun come up in Selma. Before Air Force One ever entered Alabama airspace, Obama’s presence overshadowed the commemoration. In conversations on Friday, I heard over and over again about how Obama was coming to town to symbolically “close the circle” on the struggle for voting rights. And though it shouldn’t have, I could not shake the deep sadness that I felt every time I heard this and similar comments from so many of my people who still had so much invested in this cheap pro-imperialist hustler that after the induction on Friday I found myself on Highway 80 heading out of Selma toward Montgomery.

I made the right decision.

Obama’s presence on Saturday severely crippled most of the people-centered discussions and activities that were scheduled for that day. KillingTrayvons1And as the master propagandist that he is, he gave a magnificent performance blending themes of “American exceptionalism” with the black middle-class version of black history and black struggle to give an emotionally charged twist to an otherwise trite and familiar narrative of racial uplift and progress toward a more perfect union.

In fact his performance was so effective that very few seemed to remember that just two days before the Selma speech his Department of Justice announced that it would not indict the Ferguson killer-cop Darren Wilson.

And none of the mainstream commentators seem to notice the irony in President Obama proclaiming progress toward a more perfect union the morning after another unarmed black teen was gunned down by a cop in Madison, Wisconsin and that Selma and the civil rights movement reflected the importance of non-violence as a principle to resolve social conflicts, while 600 members of the 173rd Airborne were in the air traveling to Ukraine to train the neo-Nazi Ukrainian national guard to wage war against their own citizens.

(gehiago…)

Reflexions sobre periodisme i política al Cèntric

El director editorial del diari digital infoLibre i la revista tintaLibre, Jesús Maraña, ha visitat el Cèntric, juntament amb el diputat socialista al Congrés, José Andrés Torres, per conversar i reflexionar sobre la política i el periodisme, els seus solapaments i interferències, i els motius pels quals mantenen una relació paral·lela unida per un descrèdit accentuat els últims anys

20 anys de politiques de genere en un documental

El documental MARES I FILLES, EL LLEGAT DE LES DONES AL PRAT 1995-2015 s’ha estrenat al Cèntric per commemorar els 20 anys de creació de la regidoria d’aquesta àrea de l’Ajuntament. Un documental en el qual participen deu parelles de mares i filles, en alguns casos, fins a tres generacions per conversar sobre com ha evolucionat la dona en aquest temps.

L’acte ha comptat amb la xerrada de la sociòloga Sara Moreno, qui ha ressaltat que els imaginaris socials encara persisteixen i mantenen aquesta desigualtat entre homes i dones.

Chart of the Week: The World is Catching Up to the American Middle Class

The U.S. once led the world in middle class affluence, but thanks to a recovery from the Great Recession that involves giving all the money to the already-rich, we’re losing that distinction.

“In 1960,” said Harvard economist Lawrence Katz, “we were massively richer than anyone else. In 1980, we were richer. In the 1990s, we were still richer.”

Not so much anymore. This chart shows that many countries have been closing the gap.

9

Good for them, of course, but the American middle class is struggling, too. Pew Research Center demographer Conrad Hackett summed it up:

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Lisa Wade is a professor of sociology at Occidental College and the co-author of Gender: Ideas, Interactions, Institutions. You can follow her on Twitter and Facebook.

(View original at http://thesocietypages.org/socimages)